Notes about open source software, computers, other stuff.

Tag: sysadmin (Page 1 of 5)

Getting SMART information from a Seagate Expansion Portable drive

A couple of days ago, I bought myself a 5TB Seagate Expansion Portable drive. This is an 2.5″ external spinning hard disk that connects over USB. In a review on a well-known Dutch website for IT enthusiasts, I read that inside, the drive consists of an ST5000LM000 hard drive and a USB to SATA chip (in contrast to other manufacturers like WD that solder the USB connector directly on the drives circuit board).

After connecting the drive to my computer (that currently runs Ubuntu 21.10), I wanted to see what I could learn about the drive in terms of SMART information. So I tried:

$ sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.13.0-41-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

Read Device Identity failed: scsi error unsupported field in scsi command

A mandatory SMART command failed: exiting. To continue, add one or more '-T permissive' options.

Trying the suggested -T option didn’t help. So I played around with the -d option that I had used before trying to connect to hard drives behind RAID controllers. That looked better:

$ sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda -T conservative -d sat,auto
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.13.0-41-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Vendor:               Seagate
Product:              Expansion HDD
Revision:             1901
Compliance:           SPC-4
User Capacity:        5.000.981.077.504 bytes [5,00 TB]
Logical block size:   512 bytes
Physical block size:  4096 bytes
LU is fully provisioned
Logical Unit id:      0x3e41434334313346
Serial number:        00000000NACC413F
Device type:          disk
Local Time is:        Thu May 19 21:54:04 2022 CEST
SMART support is:     Unavailable - device lacks SMART capability.

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
Current Drive Temperature:     0 C
Drive Trip Temperature:        0 C

Error Counter logging not supported

No Self-tests have been logged

The drive reports the correct size, but also says there is not SMART support. In fact, using -d scsi gave identical output. Because there should only be this USB to SATA translation layer I thought that somehow I should be able to get the SMART commands to work. Looking through the smartmontools website, I came across this article that explains the “SAT with UAS” situation. It seems that the high speed UAS driver disables SAT transfers in certain cases. The workaround is to tell the kernel to use the older usb-storage driver instead of the uas driver. With the lsusb command I identified the manufacturer and device ID of the drive:

$ lsusb | grep -i seagate
Bus 004 Device 012: ID 0bc2:2037 Seagate RSS LLC Expansion HDD

Next, I made sure to unmount and disconnect the drive and then instructed the kernel to use the old driver for this device:

$ echo "0x0bc2:0x2037:u" | sudo tee /sys/module/usb_storage/parameters/quirks

and reconnected the drive. I verified in the kernel logs that the usb-storage driver was indeed used:

mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: new SuperSpeed USB device number 12 using xhci_hcd
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas mtp-probe[983206]: checking bus 4, device 12: "/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:08.1/0000:0c:00.3/usb4/4-3/4-3.3"
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas mtp-probe[983206]: bus: 4, device: 12 was not an MTP device
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: New USB device found, idVendor=0bc2, idProduct=2037, bcdDevice=19.01
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: Product: Expansion HDD
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: Manufacturer: Seagate
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: SerialNumber: 00000000NACC413F
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb 4-3.3: UAS is ignored for this device, using usb-storage instead
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb-storage 4-3.3:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: usb-storage 4-3.3:1.0: Quirks match for vid 0bc2 pid 2037: 800000
mei 19 22:08:30 barabas kernel: scsi host6: usb-storage 4-3.3:1.0

Notice the “UAS is ignored” message. And lo and behold, smartctl now works and shows all relevant information:

$ sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.13.0-41-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Seagate Barracuda 2.5 5400
Device Model:     ST5000LM000-2U8170
Serial Number:    WCJ6AG24
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 0e0939684
Firmware Version: 0001
User Capacity:    5.000.981.078.016 bytes [5,00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    5400 rpm
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 3b
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.1, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Thu May 19 22:30:52 2022 CEST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0)	The previous self-test routine completed
					without error or no self-test has ever
					been run.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection: 		(    0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: 			 (0x71) SMART execute Offline immediate.
					No Auto Offline data collection support.
					Suspend Offline collection upon new
					command.
					No Offline surface scan supported.
					Self-test supported.
					Conveyance Self-test supported.
					Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
					power-saving mode.
					Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
					General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 ( 827) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.
SCT capabilities: 	       (0x7035)	SCT Status supported.
					SCT Feature Control supported.
					SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 10
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000f   067   065   006    Pre-fail  Always       -       5367808
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0003   100   100   000    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       10
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   036    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000f   100   253   045    Pre-fail  Always       -       3765
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0 (86 255 0)
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0013   100   100   097    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   020    Old_age   Always       -       9
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   099    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
189 High_Fly_Writes         0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   069   069   040    Old_age   Always       -       31 (Min/Max 29/31)
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       2
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       23
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0022   031   040   000    Old_age   Always       -       31 (0 19 0 0 0)
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0010   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x003e   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
240 Head_Flying_Hours       0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0 (7 164 0)
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       1723222
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0000   100   253   000    Old_age   Offline      -       3644586

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Now that I know how to do this, let’s undo the “use usb-storage driver instead of the uas driver” (alternatively, a reboot should also work, but who wants that?):

$ echo "" | sudo tee /sys/module/usb_storage/parameters/quirks

I will use this drive as a backup drive while I am travelling, so the aim of this post is not only to inform you as my reader(s), but also to remind my future self of how I did this. Now I only need to remember to check the SMART values every once in a while :-).

Using the Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock with Linux

Today the Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential dock I had ordered just before the new year arrived. My current laptop is a 6th Gen Lenovo Thinkpad X1 Carbon, which actually has two Tunderbolt 3 (TB3) ports. For a while the cable mess on my desk had been bothering me and a dock looked like a good way to get rid of both the clutter and the fact that I had to plug in a power cable, an HDMI cable, a USB cable and a network cable. The latter was especially tricky, because my laptop doesn’t have a dedicated ethernet port, but instead has a dongle that plugs into one of the TB3 ports. Of course, I didn’t want it to happen that I was on the road without the dongle, so double checking and making sure I had it in my bag was a regular worry.

With the TB3 Essential dock all this should be over. The dock is pretty well equipped:

  • 1 ethernet port (1Gbps)
  • 1 HDMI 2.0 port
  • 1 DisplayPort 1.4
  • 2 USB A 3.0 1.5Gbps ports
  • 2 USB C 10Gbps ports (no video support)
  • 1 3.5 mm audio jack.

The one thing that remained to be seen, of course, was whether the all those ports would work under Linux as well. I read some promising reports for other TB3-based docks from Lenovo, so I decided to order it.

After connecting the various cables to the dock came the moment supreme: I plugged in the TB3 cable to the laptop. And… The display connected to the HDMI port lit up. So far, so good! No USB functionality, however. Time to dive into the BIOS, because I remembered having seen some settings there, including some security related ones.

In the BIOS I couldn’t change the TB3 security setting because, as the help message explained, the graphics memory was set to 512MB. I’m not sure why this is an issue, but I looked up the graphics RAM setting and reduced it to 256MB. Next, I went back to the TB settings and set the security level to the first option: “No security”, followed by a reboot. Now, everything worked. That is one step in the right direction.

However, I wasn’t willing to forgo all security, so I went back to the BIOS settings and set the security level to “Secure Connection” (according to this blog post at dell.com this is security level 2 or SL2). I rebooted and indeed, no USB. So I went to Ubuntu’s Thunderbolt settings and there I had to press the ‘Unlock’ button in the top right corner, after which I could click on a button authorise the dock. After that all connections worked again. From the commandline, the boltctl utility can be used to see more information on the connected thunderbolt devices. This is the output for an unauthorised device:

$ boltctl list
? Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
  ?? type:          peripheral
  ?? name:          Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
  ?? vendor:        Lenovo
  ?? uuid:          00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff
  ?? status:        connected
  ?  ?? domain:     ca030000-0070-6f08-2382-4312b0238921
  ?  ?? authflags:  none
  ?? connected:     ma 04 jan 2021 16:26:45 UTC
  ?? stored:        ma 04 jan 2021 16:20:57 UTC
     ?? policy:     iommu
     ?? key:        no

And this is the output after clicking the “Authorise” button in the Ubuntu settings:

? boltctl list
? Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
  ?? type:          peripheral
  ?? name:          Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
  ?? vendor:        Lenovo
  ?? uuid:          00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff
  ?? status:        authorized
  ?  ?? domain:     ca030000-0070-6f08-2382-4312b0238921
  ?  ?? authflags:  none
  ?? authorized:    ma 04 jan 2021 16:30:07 UTC
  ?? connected:     ma 04 jan 2021 16:26:45 UTC
  ?? stored:        ma 04 jan 2021 16:20:57 UTC
     ?? policy:     iommu
     ?? key:        yes (new)

Nice!

However, my joy was shortlived, because after disconnecting and reconnecting the dock, the USB ports had stopped working again. The device had to be authorised again. This seemed tedious, so I set about reading more in the boltctl man page and found that there was a way to enroll a device permanently. So that is what I did. First I removed its UUID from the database:

$ boltctl forget 00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff

And then added it again, this time with the auto policy:

$ boltctl enroll --policy auto 00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff
 ? Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
   ?? type:          peripheral
   ?? name:          Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
   ?? vendor:        Lenovo
   ?? uuid:          00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff
   ?? dbus path:     /org/freedesktop/bolt/devices/00b00089_417d_0801_ffff_ffffffffffff
   ?? status:        authorized
   ?  ?? domain:     ca030000-0070-6f08-2382-4312b0238921
   ?  ?? parent:     ca030000-0070-6f08-2382-4312b0238921
   ?  ?? syspath:    /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.0/0000:05:00.0/0000:06:00.0/0000:07:00.0/domain0/0-0/0-1
   ?  ?? authflags:  secure
   ?? authorized:    ma 04 jan 2021 22:33:08 UTC
   ?? connected:     ma 04 jan 2021 22:32:43 UTC
   ?? stored:        ma 04 jan 2021 16:20:57 UTC
      ?? policy:     auto
      ?? key:        yes

As you can see from the boltctl list output below, the policy is now set to auto (instead of the previous iommu):

$ boltctl list
 ? Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
   ?? type:          peripheral
   ?? name:          Thunderbolt 3 Essential Dock
   ?? vendor:        Lenovo
   ?? uuid:          00b00089-417d-0801-ffff-ffffffffffff
   ?? status:        authorized
   ?  ?? domain:     ca030000-0070-6f08-2382-4312b0238921
   ?  ?? authflags:  secure
   ?? authorized:    ma 04 jan 2021 22:41:46 UTC
   ?? connected:     ma 04 jan 2021 22:41:45 UTC
   ?? stored:        ma 04 jan 2021 16:20:57 UTC
      ?? policy:     auto
      ?? key:        yes

Now I can disconnect and reconnect the dock without problems :-).

I also tested the 3.5mm audio port, which worked (at least for listening, I didn’t have a headset with microphone at hand). Same for the two USB A and the two USB C ports. Finally, I tested the DisplayPort and that worked too. In fact, connecting my 3440×1440 screen via both HDMI and DP to the dock worked fine. The Ubuntu display settings showed a “3 monitor” setup, two 3440×1440 screens and the latop’s own screen at 2560×1440.

So, in conclusion: the Lenovo Thunderbolt 3 Essential dock is fully supported under Ubuntu 20.04.

Thanks to this blog post at FunnelFiasco.com for pointing me to the boltctl utility!

And… we’re back!

The title of this blog post refers to two things: first of all, it has been more than 4 years since my last post here. Incredible… Looking back, I think “too busy” is the main reason for this. Both work and private life have eaten up a lot of my ‘spare’ time. So, as many irregular bloggers do, I hereby declare that I will try to post more frequently :-).

The second reason why the title of this post is appropriate, is because the site has been down for several months (since April this year). This was because I made the stupid mistake of wanting to do too many things at the same time. Let me explain.

The webserver that served this blog was a KVM virtual machine running on my home server. The VM was running a version of Ubuntu that was EOL. Moreover, I wasn’t happy with the fact that I used the Ubuntu WordPress package, instead of using the official WordPress installation method. The main reason for my dissatisfaction came from the fact that by using the Ubuntu package I was depending on the Ubuntu packages to update the package. Which didn’t happen often enough to my liking. By using the official WordPress installation method you can configure WordPress to (semi-)automatically update itself. Much better from a security perspective.

I had already migrated my other KVM VMs to LXD containers, with those providing web servers now running behind an Apache reverse proxy setup. I wanted the same for this last remaining VM.

On top of that, the site wasn’t properly configured to use HTTPS (I think I had a self-signed certificate, but no automatic redirection of HTTP to HTTPS). Thanks to Let’s Encrypt there is no excuse for running a proper HTTPS server so users can browse your site without any eavesdropping.

So, one fine weekend in April I bit the bullet. But I bit off too much by doing it all at once: Install an Apache in a fresh LXD container, put it behind a reverse proxy, install the latest WordPress, restore the files from the old VM, all the while trying to implement an HTTP to HTTPS redirect.

Of course, that didn’t work out. The Debian/Ubuntu configuration of WordPress is different from just editing the default WordPress config file, instead Ubuntu has its own config file in /etc/, which is included in the one from WordPress. Also, it turns out that simply redirecting HTTP to HTTPS won’t work because I had ‘mixed content’ warnings all over the place. To fix those I had to do a search-replace of HTTP to the secure variant in the site’s database and to add some extra lines to the reverse proxy config (more details hopefully soon in a separate post). And then it turned out I had forgotten to enable Apache’s mod_rewrite in the LXC container… Before you know it, you loose sight of what you did, when and why. Which config file you changed, what you disabled, enabled, etc. Especially because all the digging, reading and fixing had to be spread across multiple evenings.

Nevertheless, it was a good learning experience :-). Don’t do this if you don’t have ample time for follow-up, do these kind of upgrades in steps and make a proper plan so that dependencies between the steps are clear and you have a functional setup between each step.

Looking back, the following would have been a much better battle plan then “let’s go, this shouldn’t be hard, the migrations of other VMs/services went fine”:

  • put the VM behind the reverse proxy
  • transition to Let’s Encrypt SSL certificates and set up HTTP to HTTPS redirection
  • Configure the container with the upgraded WordPress installation and migrate the data from the old VM.

There might have been some issues with outdated PHP versions in the old VM, but those could have been (probably) mitigated with some extra Ubuntu upgrades focusing only on keeping the web server alive or the use of a PPA with updated PHP package. All the while I could have at least kept the VM running (only disabling it during the times I actually worked on the upgrade). And, of course, I could have put a backup of the VM back while trying and documenting the upgrade path, but every time I nailed an issue, I expected it to be the last one.

Keep on learning!

Fixing Emacs tramp mode when using zsh

Today I finally took some time to fix a long-standing problem: when trying to edit a file on a remote host using Emacs tramp mode, long time-outs occurred when typing the remote file name (after hitting C-x C-f). These time-outs were so long and occurred after each key press that tramp was effectively useless.

After some digging (e.g. excluding helm as the problem source) I found this entry in the Emacs Wiki which basically told my that using zsh (the Z shell) on the remote host could be the culprit. Indeed, after adding

[[ $TERM == "dumb" ]] && unsetopt zle && PS1='$ ' && return

at the top of my ~/.zshrc file solved the problem instantly. What this line does is simply replacing the shell prompt with a very simple one (a $ followed by a space) if the terminal is of the dumb type (which is the case for tramp).

Installing parted during Ubuntu installation

When installing Ubuntu (I guess a regular Debian installation won’t be any different), I sometimes would like to manually create or change partitions (by jumping to another terminal, e.g. using Alt-F2) before doing the actual install. My preferred tool for that is parted, however, on regular Ubuntu installation images (at least the server variety), parted isn’t available from the console by default.

Today I noticed that (at least on today’s daily image of Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial), a udeb file for parted is available. This is how you install it:

udpkg -i /cdrom/pool/main/p/parted/parted-udeb_3.2-15_amd64.udeb

after which you can use parted to your heart’s content.

For more information on udebs see the Debian Installer Internals documentation.

Setting the console font when using an nVidia card

Even though I do most of the work I do on my workstation in a graphical desktop environment, I sometimes want or need to switch to one of the virtual terminals (consoles), for example when trying to fix a connection problem or hanging desktop environment.

Whenever I had to do this I was always bothered by the fact that the font was so large (or, the other way around, the resolution so low). What made my annoyance worse was that I knew from my early Linux days So, instead of being annoyed I decided to fix this. Thanks to the help of mchid on unix.stackexchange.com I solved in a matter of minutes. The tricky part for me was to realise I am using an nVidia graphics card, which means things are just a little bit different than normally.

Just in case StackExchange ever goes down or this answer gets lost I will reproduce it below.

For newer Debian & Ubuntu distros using nvidia, I had to do the following: First, edit /etc/default/grub. Change the following line:

#GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480

to this:

GRUB_GFXMODE=1920x1200
GRUB_GFXPAYLOAD_LINUX=keep

replacing 1280×800 with the desired resolution.

Then:

echo "echo FRAMEBUFFER=y" | sudo tee /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/splash
sudo update-initramfs -u
sudo update-grub

To simply change the font size, you can do so using the following command:

sudo dpkg-reconfigure console-setup

Moving annual backups from an external disk with Ext4 to an external disk with ZFS

For a few years I have used the Christmas holidays to create a full
backup of my /home on an external hard disk. For that I used a
Bash script around rsync that uses hard links to keep the used disk
space under control. Each backup was saved in a directory named with
the date of the backup. POSIX ACLs were also backed up.

Since last year’s backup I have moved to ZFS (using ZFS on Linux
with Ubuntu 14.04
) as filesystem for /home (and others). Since ZFS
makes checksums of data and metadata it has the possibility to
detect corrupted files (and if the data is redundant it can also fix
them). This is a feature I’d like to have for my backups as
well: I’d rather know it when corruption occurs than live in
ignorance.

So the plan is to move the old backups from the external disk to the
ZFS pool in my server. and instead of using hard links I’ll transfer
the backups in order from old to new to the ZFS pool making a
snapshot for each. Additionally I will also turn on compression
(using the lz4 algorithm). Once that is done I will reformat the
external drive and create a ZFS pool called “JaarlijkseBackupPool” on
it (jaarlijks means annual in Dutch).

The old situation

In the current/old situation, this is how much disk space is used
on the external disk (with and without taking the hard links into
account):

$ sudo du -csh /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/*
102G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2010-11-28
121G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2013-02-04
101G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2013-12-23
324G    total
$ sudo du -clsh /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/*
102G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2010-11-28
193G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2013-02-04
255G    /mnt/JaarlijkseBackups/2013-12-23
549G    total

Copying the data from the Ext4 disk to a temporary ZFS filesystem on my server

The ZFS pool in my server is called storage. In order to save the
POSIX ACLs of the Ext4 system, they need to be enabled when
creating the ZFS filesystem as well. Setting xattr=sa means the
ACLS are stored more efficiently (although this option is not
compatible with other ZFS implementations at this time, so if I
would try to import the ZFS pool in FreeBSD for example, that
information would be inaccessible).

$ zfs create storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized \
      -o compression=lz4 \
      -o acltype=posixacl \
      -o xattr=sa
$ sudo rsync -ahPAXHS --numeric-ids \
     /storage/JaarlijkseBackups/2010-11-28/ \
     /storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized
$ zfs snapshot storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2010-11-28

Followed by the same for the same rsync and zfs snapshot
commands for the other two dates.
Once that is finished, this is the status of that ZFS FS:

$ zfs list -r -t all storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized
NAME                                            USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized              275G   438G   272G  /storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2010-11-28  1,03G      -  88,9G  -
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-02-04  2,33G      -   196G  -
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23      0      -   272G  -
$ zfs get -r -t all compressratio storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized
NAME                                           PROPERTY       VALUE  SOURCE
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized             compressratio  1.13x  -
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2010-11-28  compressratio  1.19x  -
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-02-04  compressratio  1.14x  -
storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23  compressratio  1.12x  -

Partitioning the external disk

The external disk is as 1TB Samsung SATA 3Gbps SpinPoint F2 EcoGreen disk
(type HD103SI, serial number: S1VSJD6ZB02657). The disk uses 512B
sectors:

sudo hdparm -I /dev/sdf |grep Sector
     Logical/Physical Sector size:           512 bytes

Before using it with ZFS, it needs to be partitioned. I used
parted:

$ parted /dev/sdf
GNU Parted 2.3
Using /dev/sdf
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) p
Model: ATA SAMSUNG HD103SI (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdf: 1000GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      1049kB  1000GB  1000GB  primary  ext4

(parted) mklabel
New disk label type? gpt
(parted) u
Unit?  [compact]? MB
(parted) p
Model: ATA SAMSUNG HD103SI (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdf: 1000205MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt

Number  Start  End  Size  File system  Name  Flags

(parted) mkpart
Partition name?  []? JaarlijkseBackups-HD103SI-S1VSJD6ZB02657
File system type?  [ext2]? zfs
Start? 1M
End? 1000204M
(parted) p
Model: ATA SAMSUNG HD103SI (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdf: 1000205MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt

Number  Start   End        Size       File system  Name                                  Flags
 1      1,05MB  1000204MB  1000203MB  ext4         JaarlijkseBackups-HD103SI-S1VSJD6ZB0

(parted) q

This removes the old partition table and creates a new GPT
partition table (which allows naming partitions). Next I set the
units to MB so I can leave 1MB at the beginning and end of the
partition (can be helpful when importing this pool in
e.g. FreeBSD). The disk also shows up in /dev/disk/by=partlabel
now.

Creating the new ZFS pool

$ zpool create -o ashift=9 JaarlijkseBackupPool \
    /dev/disk/by-partlabel/JaarlijkseBackups-HD103SI-S1VSJD6ZB0
$ zpool status JaarlijkseBackupPool
  pool: JaarlijkseBackupPool
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
config:

        NAME                                    STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        JaarlijkseBackupPool                    ONLINE       0     0     0
          JaarlijkseBackups-HD103SI-S1VSJD6ZB0  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

Migrating the data

Now that the new ZFS pool and filesystem are all in place, it is
time to move the backups to the new place, starting with the oldest
backup. The -R option also make sure the attributes like
compression and xattr are transferred to the new FS. The
following commands send each snapshot to the new pool (the -n
option of zfs receive is for doing a dry run, just to show how it
works). After the first snapshot is sent, the other two are sent
using the -i option to zfs send so that only the incremental
differences between the snapshots are sent.

$ zfs send -vR storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2010-11-28 | \
      zfs receive -Fvu JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups
$ zfs send -vR -i storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2010-11-28 \
    storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-02-04 | \
    zfs receive -Fvu JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups
$ zfs send -vR -i storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-02-04 \
      storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23 | \
      zfs receive -Fvu JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups -n
send from @2013-02-04 to storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23 estimated size is 84,3G
total estimated size is 84,3G
TIME        SENT   SNAPSHOT
would receive incremental stream of storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23 into JaarlijkseBackupPool@2013-12-23
14:09:16   4,22M   storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23
14:09:17   8,46M   storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23
14:09:18   18,4M   storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23
14:09:19   24,8M   storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23
^C
$ zfs send -vR -i  storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-02-04 \
      storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized@2013-12-23 | \
      zfs receive -Fvu JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups

Add this year’s backup

At first I tried to add the new backups also to the
oldRsyncBackups FS, but that didn’t work (at least not with an
incremental backup), so I ended up making a new backup. The extra
cost in disk space is not a real problem. Disk space is rather
cheap and the current configuration will last me at least one more
year. So after creating a snapshot called 2014-12-26 of my
/home I ran:

   $ zfs send -v  storage/home@2014-12-26 | \
      zfs receive -Fu JaarlijkseBackupPool/home
$ zfs list -r -t all JaarlijkseBackupPool
NAME                                              USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
JaarlijkseBackupPool                              581G   332G    30K  /JaarlijkseBackupPool
JaarlijkseBackupPool/home                         311G   332G   311G  /JaarlijkseBackupPool/home
JaarlijkseBackupPool/home@2014-12-26             51,2M      -   311G  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups              271G   332G   267G  /JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2010-11-28   974M      -  87,1G  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2013-02-04  2,23G      -   193G  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2013-12-23      0      -   267G  -
$ zfs get -r compressratio JaarlijkseBackupPool
NAME                                             PROPERTY       VALUE  SOURCE
JaarlijkseBackupPool                             compressratio  1.15x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/home                        compressratio  1.17x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/home@2014-12-26             compressratio  1.17x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups             compressratio  1.13x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2010-11-28  compressratio  1.19x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2013-02-04  compressratio  1.14x  -
JaarlijkseBackupPool/oldRsyncBackups@2013-12-23  compressratio  1.12x  -

Finishing up

In order to be able to disconnect the external drive without
damaging the filesystems use

zpool export JaarlijkseBackupPool

Later, the drive/pool can be imported using the zpool import
command.

Now that the migration is done, the intermediate filesystem
(including the snapshots) can also be removed:

zfs destroy -r storage/JaarlijkseBackupsOrganized

For reference: the old rsync script

#!/bin/sh
#
# Time-stamp: <2013-02-04 16:48:31 (root)>
# This scripts helps me create my annual backups to an external hard
# disk. The script uses rsync's hard link option to make hard links to
# the previous backups for files that haven't changed. It makes the
# backup based on an LVM snapshot it creates of the LV that contains
# the /home partition.
# This script needs to be run as root.
 
today=`date +%F`
olddate="2013-02-04"
 
srcdir="/mnt/backupsrc/"
destdir="/mnt/backupdest/JaarlijkseBackups/$today"
prevdir="/mnt/backupdest/JaarlijkseBackups/$olddate"
 
# LVM options
VG=raid5vg
LV=home
 
# rstnc options
options="-ahPAXHS --numeric-ids"
exclusions="--exclude 'lost+found/'"
#  --exclude '*/.thumbnails'"
# exclusions="$exclusions --exclude '*/.gvfs/'"
# exclusions="$exclusions --exclude '*/.cache/' --exclude '**/Cache'"
# exclusions="$exclusions --exclude '*/.recycle/'"
 
# Check to see if the previous backup directory exists
if [ ! -d $prevdir ]; then
    echo "Error: The directory with the previous back up ($prevdir) doesn't exist" 1>&2
    exit 1
fi
 
# Make a snapshot of the home LV that we can backup
lvcreate -L15G -s -n snap$LV /dev/$VG/$LV
mount /dev/$VG/snap$LV $srcdir
 
 
# Start the backup, first a dry-run, then the full one
rsynccommand="rsync $options $exclusions --link-dest=$prevdir $srcdir $destdir"
 
$rsynccommand -n
 
# Wait for user input
echo "This was a dry run. Press a key to continue with the real stuff or"
echo "hit Ctrl-c to abort."
read dummy
 
$rsynccommand

Using rsync to backup a ZFS file system to a remote Synology Diskstation

Some time ago I moved from using LVM to using ZFS on my home server. This meant I also had to change the backup script I used to make backups on a remote Synology Diskstation. Below is the updated script. I also updated it such that it now needs a single command line argument: the hostname of the Diskstation to backup to (because I now have two Diskstations at different locations). If you want to run this script from cron you should set up key-based SSH login (see also here and here).

#!/bin/bash
#
# This script makes a backup of my home dirs to a Synology DiskStation at
# another location. I use ZFS for my /home, so I make a snapshot first and
# backup from there.
#
# This script requires that the first command line argument is the
# host name of the remote backup server (the Synology NAS). It also
# assumes that the location of the backups is the same on each
# remote backup server.
#
# Time-stamp: <2014-10-27 11:35:39 (L.C. Karssen)>
# This script it licensed under the GNU GPLv3.
 
set -u
 
if [ ${#} -lt 1 ]; then
    echo -n "ERROR: Please specify a host name as first command" 1>&2
    echo " line option" 1>&2
    exit -1
fi
 
###############################
# Some settings
###############################
# Options for the remote (Synology) backup destination
DESTHOST=$1
DESTUSER=root
DESTPATH=/volume1/Backups/
DEST=${DESTUSER}@${DESTHOST}:${DESTPATH}
 
# Options for the client (the data to be backed up)
# ZFS options
ZFS_POOL=storage
ZFS_DATASET=home
ZFS_SNAPSHOT=rsync_snapshot
SNAPDIR="/home/.zfs/snapshot/$ZFS_SNAPSHOT"
 
# Backup source path. Don't forget to have trailing / otherwise
# rsync's --delete option won't work
SRC=${SNAPDIR}/
 
# rsync options
OPTIONS="--delete -azvhHSP --numeric-ids --stats"
OPTIONS="$OPTIONS --timeout=60 --delete-excluded"
OPTIONS="$OPTIONS --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2/ace/avi/deb/gpg/iso/jpeg/lz/lzma/lzo/mov/ogg/png/rar/CR2/JPG/MOV"
EXCLUSIONS="--exclude lost+found --exclude .thumbnails --exclude .gvfs"
EXCLUSIONS="$EXCLUSIONS --exclude .cache --exclude Cache"
EXCLUSIONS="$EXCLUSIONS --exclude .local/share/Trash"
EXCLUSIONS="$EXCLUSIONS --exclude home/lennart/tmp/Downloads/*.iso"
EXCLUSIONS="$EXCLUSIONS --exclude home/lennart/.recycle"
EXCLUSIONS="$EXCLUSIONS --exclude _dev_dvb_adapter0_Philips_TDA10023_DVB*"
 
 
 
###############################
# The real work
###############################
 
# Create the ZFS snapshot
if [ -d $SNAPDIR ]; then
    # If the directory exists, another backup process may be running
    echo "Directory $SNAPDIR already exists! Is another backup still running?"
    exit -1
else
    # Let's make snapshots
    zfs snapshot $ZFS_POOL/$ZFS_DATASET@$ZFS_SNAPSHOT
fi
 
 
# Do the actual backup
rsync -e 'ssh' $OPTIONS $EXCLUSIONS $SRC $DEST
 
# Remove the ZFS snapshot
if [ -d $SNAPDIR ]; then
    zfs destroy $ZFS_POOL/$ZFS_DATASET@$ZFS_SNAPSHOT
else
    echo "$SNAPDIR does not exist!" 1>&2
    exit 2
fi
 
exit 0

Multiple accounts on an SSH server: managing key files

I’ve got several domains hosted at the same hosting company, and the company provides SSH access for each of them with a different user name, but with the same SSH server address. As I’m using key-based login to the server (see also my post here) I ran into the following problem: How do I set up my SSH config file such that it knows which key to use for which user name?

It turns out that the solution is easy (thanks Kelvin!): if you use the %r variable in the ~/.ssh/config file it contains the user name which you used when logging in. Similarly, the %h contains the host name you used on the command line. So all I needed to do was to create entries like this:

Host ssh.myhoster.com
     IdentityFile ~/.ssh/hosting-%r.key

and make sure that the corresponding key files are named hosting-domain1.key, hosting-domain2.key, etc. and then log in using a command like ssh domain1@ssh.myhoster.com.

SSH with several keys: fix “Too many authentication failures” error

Yesterday I created an SSH key for a new machine. Today I try to log in to a different machine, one that actually doesn’t use keys, and I got the error mentioned in the title. It turns out SSH offers all available keys by default, so I ran out of login attempts before I noticed it.

The solution is simple: Add

IdentitiesOnly yes

to your ~/.ssh/config file.

A more detailed explanation can be found here.

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